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Version: 1.11.0

Advanced topics

Prerequisites

There are some components, such as an Ingress controller and a Certificate Manager, required in a Kubernetes cluster before an Epinio installation. The Epinio helm chart doesn't deploy these components.

Ingress controller

On a Kubernetes cluster, certain services need to be reachable from outside the cluster. For Epinio, the API server is one of them. Some applications deployed with Epinio might also need to be reachable from outside.

One way to expose services externally is by creating Ingress resources. Ingress resources on their own, have no effect. They're merely descriptions of the needed routing. An Ingress controller handles the implementation of this routing.

note

Most clusters have an Ingress controller deployed by default. Install Traefik, or another, if an Ingress controller is absent. The project uses Traefik in Epinio CI to test Epinio.

There is installation documentation for Traefik

Epinio creates an Ingress resource for the Epinio API server and each application deployed.

Cert-manager

Cert-manager documentation

Cert-manager is a Kubernetes controller that generates and renews certificates. You need these certificates to securely serve the endpoints over TLS (for example, the Epinio API server).

Epinio supports options when it comes to certificate issuers (Let's Encrypt, your own private CA, self signed certs). Cert-manager simplifies the handling of certificate issuers within Epinio.

You can read more about certificate issuers in the certificate issuers documentation

Epinio installed components

The official, supported, way to install Epinio is with the Epinio Helm chart. This Helm chart installs Epinio and it's component dependencies, listed below, needed for Epinio to work.

Epinio API server

The main component of Epinio is the API server. The same epinio binary is both the server and the CLI. The server starts with the epinio server command within a Kubernetes Pod, configured for Epinio.

Epinio CLI and web UI functionality are implemented using the endpoints provided by the Epinio API server component. For example, when the user asks Epinio to "push" an application, the CLI contacts the "Upload", "Stage" and "Deploy" endpoints of the Epinio API to:

  • upload the application code
  • create a container image for the application using this code
  • run the application on the cluster.

The Epinio API server runs on the cluster. It's reached using Kubernetes resources like Deployments, Services, Ingresses and Secrets.

Kubed

Kubed documentation

Epinio installs Kubed to keep secrets, needed in more than one namespace, synchronized. For example, the image pull secret is needed in every application namespace so that Kubernetes can pull the built application images from the Container Registry.

Kubed makes sure that if the source secret changes, the copies change too.

Minio

Minio project link

Minio is a storage solution implementing the same API as Amazon S3.

When the user pushes an application using a source code directory (with the epinio push command), the CLI packages the source code into a tarball. It then uploads it to the Epinio API server. The API server copies that to the configured S3 storage for use during the staging of the application.

When installing Epinio, you choose to use external S3 compatible storage, or let Epinio install one of Minio or s3gw on the cluster. You can see a How-to here.

s3gw

The s3gw project link

S3gw is a lightweight S3-compatible solution. You can specify it in the Epinio Helm chart as an alternative to Minio or an external S3 provider.

Container registry

The result of Epinio's application staging is a container image. You use this image to create a Kubernetes deployment to run the application code. The staging job writes the image to a container registry. There is further information in the detailed push process documentation.

By default, the Epinio installation deploys a container registry inside the Kubernetes cluster, making the process fast and convenient.

Epinio comes with two consumers of this registry:

  • Staging job - pushing the images
  • Kubernetes - pulling the images when creating a deployment for the application

All consumers should communicate with the registry using TLS to encrypt communication. Epinio controls the staging job and it ensures that it trusts the CA used to sign the registry certificate. Achieving the same for Kubernetes requires configuration that's impossible from within the cluster, therefore Epinio has no way to ensure that it trusts the CA. Epinio runs in a pod of the cluster and can't have permission to change cluster settings. Changes are only possible, from outside, by a cluster administrator.

There are 3 options:

  1. Let the Epinio user manually configure Kubernetes to trust the CA
  2. Use a well-known trusted CA, so there's no configuration needed
  3. Don't encrypt the communication at all

Currently Epinio doesn't support the first 2 options. If containerregistry.enabled is true during installation (default), Epinio makes Kubernetes pull the images un-encrypted (the last option above). If you need encryption, install the container registry manually and configure as an "external" registry during Epinio installation.

note

Communication between the staging job and container registry is TLS encrypted even when using the built-in container registry.

Other advanced topics

Git pushing

The quick way of pushing an application, explained in Quickstart: push an application, uses a local directory containing a checkout of the application's sources.

Internally this is a complex procedure. The client creates and uploads an archive (tarball or zip) from the sources to the Epinio server, copying into Epinio's internal (or external) S3 storage. It's then copied from that storage to a PersistentVolumeClaim to use in the job for staging. Staging is the compilation and creation of the docker image for use by the underlying Kubernetes cluster.

The process is different when using the Epinio client's "git mode". In this mode epinio push doesn't take a local directory of sources, but the location of a git repository and the id of the revision to use. The client then asks the Epinio server to pull those sources and store them to the S3 storage. The rest of the process is the same.

The syntax is

epinio push --name NAME --git GIT-REPOSITORY-URL,REVISION

For comparison all the relevant syntax:

epinio push
epinio push MANIFEST-PATH
epinio push --name NAME
epinio push --name NAME --path DIRECTORY
epinio push --name NAME --git GIT-REPOSITORY-URL,REVISION